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"Топики" по английскому

Music in our life
My favorite painter
My favorite painter
My future profession
PROBLEMS OF UNEMPLOYMENT OF YOUNG PEOPLE.
RADIO AND TELEVISION.
RUSSIA.
SPORTS IN GREAT BRITAN.
THE NATIONAL THEATRE
THE NEWSPAPERS AND ITS READER.
THE PROBLEMS OF TEEN-AGES.
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
THEATRES, MUSIC HALLS AND CINEMAS
Teen-ages`s problems
Theatres, music halls and cinemas

Hamlet"s Soliloquy.

To be, or not to be, that is the question: Whether "tis nobler in the
mind to suffer The slings and arrows of outrageuos fortune, Or to take
arms against a sea of troubles And by opposing, end them, Todie, to
sleep- No more, and by a sleep to say we end The heart-ache, and the
thousand natural shocks That flesh is heir to: tis a consummation
Devoutly to be wished. To die, to sleep- To sleep! perchance to dream!
ay, there"s the rub, For in that sleep of death what dreams may come,
When we have shuffled off this mortal coil. Must give us pause - there"s
the respect That makes calamity of so long life:

LEISURE TIME AND HOBBY

Many man,many minds. All people are different and so they
prefer spending their free time in different ways. Some of them
go the parks, forests,to the country and enjoy the beauty of
nature. Others like to stay at home watching TV or reading
books. There are people who are fond of cinema and theatres, so
they try to go there as often as pos- sible. As for me I prefer
to spend my free time in different ways. I like to go in for
sports, to play football, basketball or volleyball with my
friends. I like to watch TV, to listen a tape recorder and play
computer games. Also I like to go for a walk in the country and
enjoy the beauty of nature.And my way of spending free time is
connected with my hobby. And my hobby is reading books...
I"d like to say that it"s hard to imagine our life without
books.Books play such a great role in the development of
personality. They help as to forget our daily problems and to
pretend we travel to the past, future and to many different,
wonderfull places that we can"t visit in reality. I am also
sure that books are our good friends and teachers. From them we
get to know the life around as better, they teatch as how to
tell right from wrong, to love our Motherland, to understand
friendship, people"s feelings. So, they teach us how to live.
As for me I like to read different kinds of books: ......

Art galereys of London

Speaking about art galereys of London we should first of all
mention The national galery, The national portret galerey and The
tate galery. I would like to tell you about National portret
galery and about Tate galery.
The national galery houses one of the richest and most
extensive collections of painting in the world. It stands to the
north of the Trafalgar Square. the galerey was desighned by
William Wilkins and build in 1834-37. The collection covers all
schools and periods of painting, but is a specially famous for
it`s examples of Rembrant and Rubents. The british schools is
only moderately represented as the national collections are
shared with the Tate galerey. The National galerey was founded in
1824 when the government bought the collection of John Angerstein
which included 38 paintings.
The Tate gtalery houses the national collection of british
painting from the 16-th century to the present day. It is also
the national galerey for modern art, including painting and
sculpture made in Britain, Europe, America and other countries.
It was opened in 1897 as the national galerey of british art. It
owes it`s establishment to Suie Henritate who built the galerey
and gave his own collection of 65 painting.

MOSCOW THEATRES

For decades Moscow has had a reputation as a city of
theatres. The birth plays of the historic "Bolshoy", "Maly" and
"Moscow Art" theatres the city has been and steel is a centre for
the development exploretary modern ideas in the dramatic art and
is famous for it`s great number of highlygifted, interesting
directors, actors, playwrigts and artists.
Every evening the doors of Moscow theatres open to streams
of theatre-gowers. The best Moscow theatres devoded themselves to
developing the principals of directing and acting laid down by
Stanislavsky, Meerhold, Nemerovich-Danchenko, Vachtangov and
others. The discoveries and successes of Moscow theatres today
exists due to experience and triumphs of preceding generations.
I`d like to tell you about the Bolshoy Theatre.
The magestic building of the Bolshoy Theatre stands in
Sverdlov Square in Moscow`s central quater, not far from Kremlin.
This is the leading Russian opera house with the best vocalists
and choreographers in it`s company.
The Bolshoi traces it`s history to 1776 when a standing
opera company was organized in Moscow. The first opera shown in
Bolshoi theatre was opera "life of tsar" (now "Ivan Susanin").At
later times operas by Dargomyzhsky, Serov, Tcaikovsky, Borodin,
Moussorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov and Rubinstein were produced here.
At the same time the Bolshoi company staged the best operas
and ballets by West European composers-Mozart, Rossini, Weber,
Verdi and others.
The bolshoi ballet company enjoys well-deserved fame as the
world`s finest. This is equally true of it`s brilliant realistic
style of perfomance and repertoire.

Teen-ages`s problems

Fool guys. But they don`t understand, that it`s wrong. Some of them
can`t stop that, and they become dependent on drugs. Andthey commit
different serious, because they need some money to buy drugs. there are
alsomany other problems: alchoholism, smokin and so on. There are many
youth organisations in our country, wich unite young men on different
principles. Members of every organisation has ons own world out looks.
Each of them has their own morral qualities. There are some informal
organisations, for example: skinheads, hippies, panks and so on. Now
there exists the problem of missundrstanding beetwen different youth
groups.
We also face the problem how to spend our free time. We can do it in
different ways. Some of teen-ages spend their free time in different
night clubs. Other young people spend their free time in the strets.
As for me, i spend my free time at home or in the night clubs. I also
have some problems with my parents. But every time then i have them i
try to slove them without quorrel.
Now we are young people and we are the future of our country.
Teen-aegs play an important role in the modern society. Grown up`s must
remember that we are the future of our country and in present moment our
character is formed and that`s why our parents must not assert pressure
on us.end our free time. We can do it in different ways. Some of teА

Learning languages.
The problem of learning languages is very important today. Foreign
languages are socially demanded especially at the present time when the
progress in science and technology has led to an explosion of knowledge
and has contributed to an overflow of information. The total knowledge
of mankind is known to double every seven years. Foreign languages are
needed as the main and most efficient means of information exchange of
the people of our planet.
Today English is the language of the world. Over 350 million people
speak it as a mother tongue. The native speakers of English live in
Great Britain, the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand.
English is one of the official languages in the Irish Republic, Canada,
the South African Republic. As a second language it is used in the
former British and US colonies.
It is the major international language for communication in such
areas as science, technology, business and mass entertainment. English
is one of the official languages of the United Nations Organization and
other political organization. It is the language of the literature,
education, modern music, international tourism.
Russia is integrating into the world community and the problem of
learning English for the purpose of communication is espicially urgent
today. Learning a foreing language is not as easy thing. It is a long
and slow process that takes a lot of time and patience. But to know
English is absolutely necessary for every educated person, for every
good specialist.
It is well known that reading books in the original , listening to
the BBC news, communicating with the English speaking people will help a
lot. When learning a foreign language you learn the culture and history
of the native speakers. One must work hard to learn any foreign
language.

LIESURE TIME.
Everybody sometimes has a free time. Somebody prefer only to sleep in
their liesure time, but the largest part of us prefer to do a great
amount of things which are pleasant and interesting for us. It may be
reading, a various types of sport game, watching TV, listening music and
others. If we have a few day or a week we prefer to go to the attractive
places. Many peoples thing that pupils and studients have too much
liesure ,but in my opinion, they are wrong. We are very busy. Many
pupils have six or se-ven lessons a day and go to school live or six day
a week. Even during the holiday we learn our lessons after school. And
we just no time to go some-there. Oldest of us are working after school
or institutes. IТam not spend my time at school and ofter I have a free
time. The large part of my free time devote to reading. I like to read
books about another coun-tries, another times and another worlds. Also I
read books about history of our country. Besides reading I like to do
physical exercises. I and my school friends often gather after school
and play basketball, fooftball or other active games. But my favorite
hobby is travelling. Usually I travel in summer and ofter it is a trip
to the south, to the warm sea. thing all peoples must have other
occupation besides their basic work, ba-csuse it extand the bounduries
of the familar world and teach us something new about people and thing.

MASS MEDIA.
Mass media ( that is the press, the radio and television ) play an
important role in the life of society. They inform, educate and
entertain people. They also influence the way people look at the world
and make them change their views. Mass media mould public opinion.
Millions of people in their spare time watch TV and read newspapers.
Everybody can find there something interesting for him. On the radioone
can hear music, plays, news and various discussions or commentaries of
current events. Lot`s radio or TV games and films attract a large
audience. Newspapers uses in different ways, but basically they are
read. There is a lot of advertisment on mass media. Some of the TV and
radio stations and newspapers are owned by different corporations. The
owners can advertise whatever they choose. But it is hardly fair to say
that mass media do not try to raise cultural level of the people or to
develop their artistic taste. Mass media brings to millions of homes not
only entertaiment and news but also cultural and educational programs.
There are more then six TV channels and lot`s of radio stations and
newspapers now in the Russian Federation.

PROBLEMS OF UNEMPLOYMENT OF YOUNG PEOPLE.
People of almost every age are susceptible to this pernitious disease
but it hits the youth the hardest. It`s name is unemployment. The
persent-age of unemployed youth in the total number of the jobless is
high. In many developing countries the situation is more serious. Many
young people to commit suside. Unless the economic situation in the
world changes, youth unemployment will mount. This prodictions refer to
all catigories of workers-with high and low skills in town and country.
For all there possible distinctious,these young people over outside the
production structure of society. The are deprived the possebility of
creting there are "surplus" from time to time some may get a hit of
luck, but the lot of the majority is to feel their unlessles to lose
their ideals and become disillusioned. Unemployment greatly
intemcilicselle tendency among the youth towards, drug education ,
frastretion and crime. This is a time bomb and is a heavy acusation of
any social economic system.

British education
British education emas us to develop fully the abilities of
individuals, for their own benefit and of society as a whole. Compulsory
schooling takes place between the agers of 5 and 16, but some pupils
remain at shool for 2 years more, to prepare for further higher
education. Post shool education is organized flaxebly, to provide a wide
range of opportunities for academic and vacational education and to
continue studying through out life.
Administration of state schools is decentralised. The department of
education and science is responsible for national education policy, but
it doesn`t run any schools, if doesn`t employ teachers, or prescribe
corricular or textbooks. All shools are given a considerable amount of
freedom. According to the law only one subject is compulsary. That is
religious instruction.
Children recieve preschool education under the age of 5 in nursery
schools or in infant`s classes in primary schools.
Most pupils receive free education finenst from public fonds and the
small proportions attend schools wholy independent. Most independent
schools are single-sex, but the number of mixing schools is growing.
Education within the mantained schools system usually comprises two
stages: primary and secondary education. Primary schools are subdevided
into infant schools (ages 5 - 7), and junior schools (ages 7 - 11).
Infant schools are informal and children are encouraged to read, write
and make use of numbers and develop the creative abilities. Primary
children do all their work with the same class teacher exept for PT and
music. The work is beist upon the pupils interests as far as possible.
The junior stage extence over four years. Children have set pirits of
arithmetic, reading, composition, history, geography nature study and
others. At this stage of schooling pupils were often placed in A, B, C
and D streams according their abilities. The most able children were put
in the A stream, the list able in the D stream. Till reccantly most
junior shool children had to seat for the eleven-plus examination. It
usually consisted of an arithmetic paper and an entelligent test.
According to the results of the exam children are sent to Grammar,
Technical or Secondary modern schools. So called comprehansive schools
began to appear after World War 2. They are muchly mixed schools which
can provide education for over 1000 pupils. Ideally they provide all the
courses given in Grammar, Technical and Secondary modern schools.
By the law all children must receive full-time education between the
ages of 5 and 16. Formally each child can remain a school for a further
2 or 3 years and continue his studies in the sixth form up to the age of
18 or 19. The course is usually subdevided into the lower 6 and the
upper 6. The corricular is narrowed to 5 subjects of which a pupil can
choose 2 or 3.
The main examinations for secondary school pupils are general
certeficate of education (the GCE) exam and certificate of secondary
education (the CSE) exam. The GSE exam is held at two levels: ordinary
level (0 level) and advanced level (A level).
Candidats set for 0 level papers at 15 - 16 years away. GCE level is
usually taken at the end on the sixth form. The CSE level exam is taken
after 5 years of secondary education by the pupils who are of everage
abilities of their age.

My future profession

What I would like to become? This question pasels me greatly. Every
job has its elements of difficulties and interest. I think that nearly
all the professions are very important in life. But to choose the right
occupation is very difficult, because we must take in to consideration
many factors. We must consider our personal taste and our kind of mind.
At the same time we must satisfy the requirements of our society and
peoples needs in one profession or another.
The end of school is the beginning of an independent life, the
beginning of a more serious examination. In order to pass that very
serious exam we must choose the road in life which will help us best to
live and work. Each boy and girl has every opportunity to develop mind
and use knowledge and education received at school. Some may prefer to
work in factories or works, others want to go into construction: to take
part in building power stations and new towns. Many opportunities to
work and to satisfy at the same time the requirements of the society and
your own personal interest are offered in the sfere of the services
transport, communications and many others.
I have a specially liking for to became a programmist. I like this
profession because it very interest.

Art gallereys of London

Speaking about art gallereys of London we should first of all mention
The national gallery, The national portret galerey and The tate gallery.
I would like to tell you about National portret gallery and about Tate
gallery.
The national gallery houses one of the richest and most extensive
collections of painting in the world. It stands to the north of the
Trafalgar Square. the gallerey was desighned by William Wilkins and
build in 1834-37. The collection covers all schools and periods of
painting, but is a specially famous for it`s examples of Rembrant and
Rubents. The british schools is only moderately represented as the
national collections are shared with the Tate gallerey. The National
gallerey was founded in 1824 when the government bought the collection
of John Angerstein which included 38 paintings.
The Tate gallery houses the national collection of british painting
from the 16-th century to the present day. It is also the national
gallerey for modern art, including painting and sculpture made in
Britain, Europe, America and other countries. It was opened in 1897 as
the national gallerey of british art. It owes it`s establishment to Suie
Henritate who built the gallerey and gave his own collection of 65
painting.

MOSCOW THEATRES

For decades Moscow has had a reputation as a city of
theatres. The birth plays of the historic "Bolshoy", "Maly" and
"Moscow Art" theatres the city has been and steel is a centre for
the development exploretary modern ideas in the dramatic art and
is famous for it`s great number of highlygifted, interesting
directors, actors, playwrigts and artists.
Every evening the doors of Moscow theatres open to streams
of theatre-gowers. The best Moscow theatres devoded themselves to
developing the principals of directing and acting laid down by
Stanislavsky, Meerhold, Nemerovich-Danchenko, Vachtangov and
others. The discoveries and successes of Moscow theatres today
exists due to experience and triumphs of preceding generations.

Art in Moscow
Speaking about art gallereys of Moscow we must mention the
most famous gallereys.
The State Tretyakov gallery is one of the best known picture
gallereys in Russia. It takes it`s name from it`s founder Pavel
Tretyakov, a Moscow mercant. In the 19`th century Tretyakov began
to collect russian paintings. He visitet all the exibitions and
art studios and bought the best pictures. Little by little
Tretyakov extended his interests and began to collect earlier
Russian paintings. In 1881 Tretyakov opened in St. Peterburg to
the public, 11 years later he donated it to the city of Moscow.
Since then the gallerey has received hundred paintings from oter
museums and private collections. The Tretyakov gallerey reflects
the whole history of Russian paintings from 11`th century to the
present day.
Also I`d like to tell you about state pushkin museum of fine
art. The building was built in Greek stile by Roman Klein in 1898
- 1912 to house a museum of fine art, founded of initiative of
professor Ivan Cvetayev. Since 1937 it has be known as The Puskin
museum of fine art. It has one of the worlds largest ancient
collections of european art. Now the picture gallerey has over 2
thousands works of various schools of painting which enaibous us
to understand and appreciate the variaty of staills over the
centuries.
The Pushkin museum pereodically hald`s exibition of the art
of various countries and of individual outstanding artist of past
and present.

British theatres

Until reccently the history of the english theatre has been build
around actors rather then companies. It has been hard to find any London
theatre that even had a consistent policy. There are no permanent staff
in British theatres. Apply is rehearsed for a few weeks by a company of
actors working together mostly for the first time and it is allowed to
run as long as it draws the odious and pays it`s way.
Another peculiarity of the theatres in Great Britain is an follows:
there are two kinds of seats, which can be booked an advanced
(bookable), and unbookable once have no numbers and the spectators
occupy them on the principal: first come - first served. And ancient
times plays were acted inside churches and later on the market places.
The first theatre in England "The Blackfries" build in 1576, and "The
Globe" build in 1599, which is closely connected with William
Shakespeare. Speaking about our times we should first of all mention
"The English National theatre","The Royal Shakespeare company" and
"Covent Garden".
"Covent Garden" used to be a fashionable promenade - it was, before
then, a convent garden - but when it became overrun with flower-sellers,
orange-vendors and vegetable-growers, the people moved to more exclusive
surroundings farther west, such as "St. Jame`s Square".
The first "Covent Garden theatre" was build in 1732. It was burnt
down in 1808 and rebuild exactly a year after. It opened in September
1809, with Shakespeare`s "Macbeth". Since the middle of the last century
"Covent Garden" became exclusively devoted to opera.
Now "Covent Garden" in busier than ever, it is one of the few
well-known opera houses open for 11 months of the year and it employs
over 600 people both of the Opera company and the Royal Ballet.

My favorite painter
One of my favorite artists is Rembrant is the greatest Dutch
master, one of the supreme geneuses in the history of art. To
this day the art of Rembrant remains one of the most profound
witness of the progress of the soul in it`s earthly pilgrimage
towards the realisation of higher destiny. The son of the
prosperous miller, Rembrant was born in Leiden in 1608. He
studied at Leiden University, but his real vocation was painting.
His rapid sugsess promoted him to move to the Amsterdam in 1631.
In 1632 Rembrant bought a splendid house, started a collection
of paintings and rarities. The universal artist dealt with many
world subjects. Rembrant created a number of portraits and some
group portraits which were traditional to the Dutch art. The best
of them are "Anatomy lesson of Dr. Tulp" and "The night watch".
In 1655 Rembrant found himself in the midst of several
financial troubles. At that period he painted "The Polish Rider",
which is an allegory of the man`s earthly journey.
Probably in 1669, the year of his own death, Rembrant
painted his famous "Return of the Prological son", which stands
at the ultimate peak of Cristian spirituality, illuminating the
relationship of the self to the eternity.
The biblical theme was very important to Rembrant. He painted
"Artakserks, Oman and Eshpir", "The Saint Family".
Rembrant was not understood when he was alive. He died in
poverty. But it is the spirituality of his art that distinguishes
Rembrant from his Dutch contemporaries making him the greatest
artist of the world.

THE PROBLEMS OF TEEN-AGES.

There are many young people in our country. Each of them has one`s
own view point on their life and their future. There are many problems
which are common for all young people.For Example: how to spend their
free time, what to do after school, choosing a profession, how to deal
with girl and boy-friends and so on.
The problem number one of most of the young people is the problem of
fathers and sons. All young people want to be independent, they want
their parents to listen to their opinion, not to interfere in their
private life. Some parents neglect their children, because they cant
find a common language with each other.
Many problems were hushed up, but now we can speak openly about them.
I think that the most difficult and sirious problem of modern teen-ages
is drug-habit. Some young man use drugs, because they think that will be
cool guys. But they don`t understand, that it`s wrong. Some of them
can`t stop that, and they become dependent on drugs. And they commit
different serious, because they need some money to buy drugs. There are
also many other problems: alchoholism, smokin and so on. There are many
youth organisations in our country, wich unite young men on different
principles. Members of every organisation has ons own world out looks.
Each of them has their own morral qualities. There are some informal
organisations, for example: skinheads, hippies, panks and so on. Now
there exists the problem of missundrstanding beetwen different youth
groups.
We also face the problem how to spend our free time. We can do it in
different ways. Some of teen-ages spend their free time in different
night clubs. Other young people spend their free time in the strets.
As for me, i spend my free time at home or in the night clubs. I also
have some problems with my parents. But every time then i have them i
try to slove them without quorrel.
Now we are young people and we are the future of our country.
Teen-aegs play an important role in the modern society. Grown up`s must
remember that we are the future of our country and in present moment our
character is formed and that`s why our parents must not assert pressure
on us.

THEATRES, MUSIC HALLS AND CINEMAS

Theatres are very much the same in London as anywhere else;
the chief theatres ,music halls and cinemas are in the West End.
If you are staying in London for a few days, you`ll have no
difficulty whatever in finding somewhere to spend an enjoyable
evening. You`ll find opera, balley, comedy, drama, revue, musical
comedy and variety. Films are shown in the cinemas during the
greatest part of the day.
The best seats at theatres are those in the stalls, the
circle and the upper circle. Then comes the pit, and the last of
all the gallery where the seats are cheapest. Boxes, of course,
are the most expensive. Most theatres and music halls have good
orchestras with popular conductors.
You ought to make a point of going to the opera at least
once during the season if you can. There you can get the best of
everything - an exellent orchestras, famous conductors, celebated
singers and well dressed audience. But, of course, if you are not
fond of music and singing, won`t interest you.
At the West End theatres you can see most of the famous
English actors and actresses. As a rule, the plays are
magnificently staged - costumes, dresses, scenery, everything
being done of the most lavish scale. Choose a good play, and
you`ll enjoy yourself thoroughly from the moment the curtain goes
up to the end of the last act. Get your seats beforehand, either
at the box-office of theatre itself or at one of the agencies.
When you go to a theatre, you`ll probably want to seat as near to
the stage as possible. But if you are at the cinema, you may
prefer to seat some distance from the screen. In fact, I would
say, the further away the better.

LONDON, Jack (1876-1916).

The novelist and short-story writer Jack London was, in his lifetime,
one of the most popular authors in the world. After World War I his fame
was eclipsed in the United States by a new generation of writers, but he
remained popular in many other countries, especially in the Soviet
Union, for his romantic tales of adventure mixed with elemental
struggles for survival.
John Griffith London was born in San Francisco on Jan. 12, 1876. His
family was poor, and he was forced to go to work early in life to
support himself. At 17 he sailed to Japan and Siberia on a seal-hunting
voyage. He was largely self-taught, reading voluminously in libraries
and spending a year at the University of California. In the late 1890s
he joined the gold rush to the Klondike. This experience gave him
material for his first book, `The Son of Wolf`, published in 1900, and
for `Call of the Wild` (1903), one of his most popular stories.
In his writing career of 17 years, London produced 50 books and many
short stories. He wrote mostly for money, to meet ever-increasing
expenses. His fame as a writer gave him a ready audience as a spokesman
for a peculiar and inconsistent blend of socialism and racial
superiority.
London`s works, all hastily written, are of uneven quality. The best
books are the Klondike tales, which also include `White Fang` (1906) and
`Burning Daylight` (1910). His most enduring novel is probably the
autobiographical `Martin Eden` (1909), but the exciting `Sea Wolf`
(1904) continues to have great appeal for young readers.
In 1910 London settled near Glen Ellen, Calif., where he intended to
build his dream home, "Wolf House." After the house burned down before
completion in 1913, he was a broken and sick man. His death on Nov. 22,
1916, from an overdose of drugs, was probably a suicide.

MUSIC.
Music - it art, reflecting validity in sound art images, one of the
forms of public ideology. Having by powerful force direct emotional
effect, music during of all history of man-kind plays a huge social,
cultural and educational role.
Lieading composers are connected to progressive public movements,
life, interests and aspirations people. Each nations differs by peculiar
national features. Folk music, being improved by creative efforts of
many generations of the people, reaches a high degree of art maturity.
On the basis of riches of national music professional musical creativity
of composers is developed. Rejection of music from advanced ideas epoch
of national culture, national roots of art leads to it`s to decline and
degeneration.
Idia emotional contents of music is passed through sound art images,
implemented in musical sounds. The basic of music is the tune. according
to the way of performance music is divided into 2 main branches:
instrumental and vocal.
There are a lot of different styles of music. Such as: Jazz, Pop,
Rock, Classic; and new musical directions.Such as: Rave, Hard Core,
Jungle, Break Beat and many other. I like to listen to rave music and
Happy Hard Core.
As for me i like these styles because they are very rythmic and
dancing. The beginning of techno music was put very known singer Fredde
Mercuri was the first to compose music in the style techno. In those
years very few people evaluated new style of music. But with the years a
new style has grown up to such global sizes. Now this music is listened
to by large part of youth. I think it`s very good that such musical
direction as raiv has appeared. Because in raiv there are a lot of
musical directions. Young people that are fond of music can easily
choose just that style which appeals to them.

THE NEWSPAPERS AND ITS READER.
1. Press is often called amirror of current events. The information
we get from newspapers and magazins helps us to know the life at home
and in other countrys.
The newspapers aim is to inform the readers as fully as possible of
the events taking place in Russia an afroad. They try to cover domestic
and foreighn policy and the public opinion on all topicall usenes.
2. My family receives ... . I think ... is most interesting i prefer
it because ... . It`s a daly (weekly, monthly) newspaper (magazin).
3. If you are a regular reader of the press, you can got a lot of
information.

RADIO AND TELEVISION.
Of all the discoveries ever made by man, radio or wireless, is one of
the most wonderfull. By means of wireless, you can speak to a man on the
other side of the world. Seated confortably in your own home, you can
hear music or talks, broadcast thousand of miles away from your- talks
on national and international affairs, on science, history and other
educational subject.
I listen to the wireless almost every evening, mine is are eght-valve
set an arial which gives splended results. I t has medium, long and
short wave-lenghts and it quit simple to manipulate. All I have to do
it`s to tune into the station I require.
I use my set a good deal for keeping up my forhn lanuges.

RUSSIA.
Russia occupy a large territory. It strech almost 10 000 (ten
thousend) kilometres from east to west and nearly 5 000 (five thousend)
kilometres from north to south. It`s population is 150 000 000 (one
handred and fifty) million people.
From spring till autmn the sun never sets over Russia: in Kaliningrad
peole see it sitting in the Baltic, while in Kamchatka it rises out of
the Pasific Ocean at the some time. People in our country see the New
Year in eleven times in one night.
If you begin to trevell in the Far East by air and fly 8 000 (eight
thousend)kilometres towards the west, you will land in Moscow on thr
same hour same day that you left the Far East.
It is a wonderful sight yo see our country from the plane. One can
hardly imagine a country more interesting to trevellers whan Russia.
Siberia covers millions of square kilometres. You fly over mountain,
endless forests, large and small rivers, railways, motorways. You leave
behind the lights of young and small towns, plants and factories.
Siberia is a rigeon of untold riches.
Father West are the Ural Mountains the border between Asia and
europe. The Urals are riche in different minerals.
The country`s European part covers the territory from Urals to the
Baltic Sea. The largest cities of the Russia are situated between
theBlack Sea in the south and the Black Sea in the north. Such an our
country from East to West. There is no over countrys in which the climet
differs so much from one part to another. When it is still winter in the
northen regions of our country the first warm days arrive in the south.
In the central regions show storms and cold are still in power, while in
the south people begin to think of spring crops. In the same season
nature looks different in different parts of our country.
Russia is rich in oil, coul, iron, gold, silver and other minerals.

THE NATIONAL THEATRE
It took over the hundred years to establish a national theatre
company. It`s first director from 1962 was Lawrence Olivier. This is the
first state theatre Britain has ever had. A special building for it was
opened in 1976. It has three theatres in one: "The Oliver theatre", the
biggest is for the main classical repertoire; "The Lyttilton", a bit
smaller is for new writing and for visiting foreigh countries and "The
Cottesloe theatre", the smallest is used for experimental writing and
productions. "The Royal Shakespeare company" are devided between the
country and the capital and it`s produces plays mainly by Shakespeare
and his contempraries when it performs is "Stratford -on-Avon", and
modern plays in it`s two auditoria in the Cities, Barbican centre.

Moscow theatres

For decades Moscow has had a reputation as a city of theatres. The
birth plays of the historic "Bolshoy", "Maly" and "Moscow Art" theatres
the city has been and steel is a centre for the development exploretary
modern ideas in the dramatic art and is famous for it`s great number of
highlygifted, interesting directors, actors, playwrigts and artists.
Every evening the doors of Moscow theatres open to streams of
theatre-gowers. The best Moscow theatres devoded themselves to
developing the principals of directing and acting laid down by
Stanislavsky, Meerhold, Nemerovich-Danchenko, Vachtangov and others. The
discoveries and successes of Moscow theatres today exists due to
experience and triumphs of preceding generations.
I`d like to tell you about the Bolshoy Theatre. The magestic building
of the Bolshoy Theatre stands in Theatre Square in Moscow`s central
quater, not far from Kremlin. This is the leading Russian opera house
with the best vocalists and choreographers in it`s company.
The Bolshoi traces it`s history to 1776 when a standing opera company
was organized in Moscow. The first opera shown in Bolshoi theatre was
opera "life of tsar" (now "Ivan Susanin"). At later times operas by
Dargomyzhsky, Serov, Tcaikovsky, Borodin, Moussorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov
and Rubinstein were produced here.
At the same time the Bolshoi company staged the best operas and
ballets by West European composers-Mozart, Rossini, Weber, Verdi and
others.
The bolshoi ballet company enjoys well-deserved fame as the world`s
finest. This is equally true of it`s brilliant realistic style of
perfomance and repertoire.

My favorite painter

One of my favorite artists is Rembrant is the greatest Dutch master,
one of the supreme geneuses in the history of art. To this day the art
of Rembrant remains one of the most profound witness of the progress of
the soul in it`s earthly pilgrimage towards the realisation of higher
destiny. The son of the prosperous miller, Rembrant was born in Leiden
in 1608. He studied at Leiden University, but his real vocation was
painting. His rapid sugsess promoted him to move to the Amsterdam in
1631.
In 1632 Rembrant bought a splendid house, started a collection of
paintings and rarities.
The universal artist dealt with many world subjects. Rembrant created
a number of portraits and some group portraits which were traditional to
the Dutch art. The best of them are "Anatomy lesson of Dr. Tulp" and
"The night watch".
In 1655 Rembrant found himself in the midst of several financial
troubles. At that period he painted "The Polish Rider", which is an
allegory of the man`s earthly journey.
Probably in 1669, the year of his own death, Rembrant painted his
famous "Return of the Prological son", which stands at the ultimate peak
of Cristian spirituality, illuminating the relationship of the self to
the eternity.
The biblical theme was very important to Rembrant. He painted
"Artakserks, Oman and Eshpir", "The Saint Family".
Rembrant was not understood when he was alive. He died in poverty.
But it is the spirituality of his art that distinguishes Rembrant from
his Dutch contemporaries making him the greatest artist of the world.

Theatres, music halls and cinemas

Theatres are very much the same in London as anywhere else; the chief
theatres ,music halls and cinemas are in the West End. If you are
staying in London for a few days, you`ll have no difficulty whatever in
finding somewhere to spend an enjoyable evening. You`ll find opera,
balley, comedy, drama, revue, musical comedy and variety. Films are
shown in the cinemas during the greatest part of the day.
The best seats at theatres are those in the stalls, the circle and
the upper circle. Then comes the pit, and the last of all the gallery
where the seats are cheapest. Boxes, of course, are the most expensive.
Most theatres and music halls have good orchestras with popular
conductors.
You ought to make a point of going to the opera at least once during
the season if you can. There you can get the best of everything - an
exellent orchestras, famous conductors, celebated singers and well
dressed audience. But, of course, if you are not fond of music and
singing, won`t interest you.
At the West End theatres you can see most of the famous English
actors and actresses. As a rule, the plays are magnificently staged -
costumes, dresses, scenery, everything being done of the most lavish
scale. Choose a good play, and you`ll enjoy yourself thoroughly from the
moment the curtain goes up to the end of the last act. Get your seats
beforehand, either at the box-office of theatre itself or at one of the
agencies. When you go to a theatre, you`ll probably want to seat as near
to the stage as possible. But if you are at the cinema, you may prefer
to seat some distance from the screen. In fact, I would say, the further
away the better.

Music in our life

Music - it art, reflecting validity in sound art images, one of the
forms of public ideology. Having by powerful force direct emotional
effect, music during of all history of man-kind plays a huge social,
cultural and educational role.
Leading composers are connected to progressive public movements,
life, interests and aspirations people. Each nations differs by peculiar
national features. Folk music, being improved by creative efforts of
many generations of the people, reaches a high degree of art maturity.
On the basis of riches of national music professional musical creativity
of composers is developed. Rejection of music from advanced ideas epoch
of national culture, national roots of art leads to it`s to decline and
degeneration.
Idea emotional contents of music is passed through sound art images,
implemented in musical sounds. The basis of music is the tune. According
to the way of performance music is devided into 2 main branches:
instrumental and vocal.
There are a great number of different styles of music, such as Jazz,
Pop, Rock, Classic; and new musical directions. One of the new music
directions is Rave. I prefer to listen hard-core and more quiet music
such as Roxette and others.
Now days the number of music styles is growing, and every young
people, which are fond of music can easily choose that style which
appeals to them.

Learning languages

The problem of learning languages is very important today. Foreign
languages are socially demanded especially at the present time when the
progress in science and technology has led to an explosion of knowledge
and has contributed to an overflow of information. The total knowledge
of mankind is known to double every seven years. Foreign languages are
needed as the main and most efficient means of information exchange of
the people of our planet.
Today English is the language of the world. Over 350 million people
speak it as a mother tongue. The native speakers of English live in
Great Britain, the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand.
English is one of the official languages in the Irish Republic, Canada,
the South African Republic. As a second language it is used in the
former British and US colonies.
It is the major international language for communication in such
areas as science, technology, business and mass entertainment. English
is one of the official languages of the United Nations Organization and
other political organization. It is the language of the literature,
education, modern music, international tourism.
Russia is integrating into the world community and the problem of
learning English for the purpose of communication is espicially urgent
today. Learning a foreing language is not as easy thing. It is a long
and slow process that takes a lot of time and patience. But to know
English is absolutely necessary for every educated person, for every
good specialist.
It is well known that reading books in the original , listening to
the BBC news, communicating with the English speaking people will help a
lot. When learning a foreign language you learn the culture and history
of the native speakers. One must work hard to learn any foreign
language.

LONDON, Jack (1876-1916). Скачайте архив полного текста.

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